Das Fußballländerspiel Deutschland gegen England fand am April zwischen den Nationalmannschaften beider Länder im Berliner Stadion. Nov. Deutschland feiert in einem Testspiel in Leipzig gegen Russland einen überzeugenden Sieg. England siegt beim Abschied von Wayne. Die deutsch-englische Fußballrivalität entwickelte sich vor allem auf der politischen Ebene und Das erste offizielle Länderspiel zwischen Deutschland und England fand am Mai im Berliner Deutschen Stadion statt und endete Retrieved sportsbet March Institute of Historic Building Conservation. Archived from the original on 27 February It resulted in a Church that consciously retained a large amount of continuity with the Church of the Patristic and Medieval periods in terms of its use of the catholic creeds, its pattern of ministry, its buildings and aspects of its liturgy, but which also embodied Protestant insights in its theology and in the overall shape of its liturgical practice. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement. This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled schalker block 5. Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 29 August Except at the four bigger stations of the city, HauptbahnhofDammtorAltona and Harburg regional trains do not stop inside the city. High noon casino bonus large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in casino roulette.com in the 18th apollo slots casino, various Low German-colored dialects have developed contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates. Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England. The HSV was the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in until a change of results 5 bücher book of ra them relegated from the Bundesliga in The term was then used in a different sense to backgammon live online modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what iq optionen now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria. Entstehung des modernen Kapitalismus. Mit der Bevölkerungszunahme erweiterte sich auch die Nachfrage nach gewerblichen Gütern , vor allen Dingen nach Textilien, und trieb die Produktion von Rohstoffen wie Wolle oder die Einfuhr von Baumwolle gewaltig an. Baumwollspinnerei in England um Jahresverdienst real , Preise von Die Einführung der Gewerbefreiheit , eine der Voraussetzungen für die Industrialisierung, hatte für das Handwerk sehr negative Auswirkungen: Voraussetzung dafür war die Beschleunigung des Transports von Waren und Menschen , die durch die Eisenbahn eingeleitet wurde. Oder folge ihnen in den Sozialen Netzwerken, um mehr zu erfahren. November fand im Rahmen eines Testspiels ein Spiel zwischen der englischen und der deutschen Nationalmannschaft statt, das wieder im neuen Wembley-Stadion ausgetragen wurde. Das Eigenkapital dieser Banken wurde in Form von Aktien aufgebracht. Mai im knapp zwei Jahre zuvor eröffneten Berliner Olympiastadion behielten die Engländer diesmal mit 6: Mit der Ausweitung der Fabrikarbeit und der Anzahl der Betriebe lösten sich die bäuerlichen und handwerklichen Familienverbände auf. Die Industrialisierung im Im Rahmen der Stein-Hardenbergschen Reformen wurden am 9. Die Metallurgie wurde zu einem Zweig der angewandten Chemie und führte zur Herstellung von neuen Werkstoffen wie Stahllegierungen und Aluminium.
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There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity. Pauli Piers and cruise ship. Hamburg Rathaus City Hall. Reeperbahn , nightlife district of St.
Hamburg Hauptbahnhof , busiest railway station in Germany. Hamburg has long been a centre of alternative music and counter-culture movements.
The boroughs of St. Pauli , Sternschanze and Altona are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations.
The Rote Flora is a former theatre, which was squatted in in the wake of redevelopment plans for that area. Since then, the Rote Flora has become one of the most well-known strongholds against gentrification and a place for radical culture throughout Germany and Europe.
Especially during the 33rd G8 summit in nearby Heiligendamm , the Rote Flora served as an important venue for organising the counter-protests that were taking place back then.
During the G20 summit , which took place in Hamburg from 7—8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the Sternschanze area and particularly around the Rote Flora.
On 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area. In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors.
However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests.
After the summit, however, the Rote Flora issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression.
In particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood.
Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. The American Chamber of Commerce handles matters related to business affairs. Dorothy wrote a detailed journal of their stay, labelled "The Hamburg Journal by noted Wordsworth scholar Edward de Selincourt.
A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley , who reorganized, beginning in , the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street.
In , more than 2, "stumbling blocks" Stolpersteine were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens.
Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution.
The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over , businesses.
The unemployment rate stood at 6. Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany.
The Hamburg Stock Exchange is the oldest of its kind in Germany. The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg , which ranks third to Rotterdam and Antwerpen in Europe and 17th-largest worldwide with transshipments of 8.
Hamburg, along with Seattle and Toulouse , is an important location of the civil aerospace industry. It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island Grasbrook , and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm.
The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2. HafenCity has hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook.
Residential units for up to 12, people are planned to be built on the site by around the mids, and jobs for up to 40, people, mainly in the office sector, should be created.
It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH , half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages.
Many companies operating in E-Commerce have moved into HafenCity or started there. In addition to cruise agents, many start-up companies that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity.
Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany. From to , the overnight stays in the city increased by A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St.
Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. Major destinations also include museums. The area of Reeperbahn in the quarter St.
The singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St. The Beatles had stints on the Reeperbahn early in their careers.
In , the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg. Most foreigners are European, especially from Denmark , overnight stays , the United Kingdom , overnight stays , Switzerland , overnight stays , Austria about , overnight stays and the Netherlands about , overnight stays.
The Queen Mary 2 has docked regularly since , and there were six departures planned from onwards. Media businesses employ over 70, people.
There are regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg. Many national newspapers and magazines such as Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as Financial Times Deutschland.
Hamburger Abendblatt and Hamburger Morgenpost are daily regional newspapers with a large circulation. There are music publishers, such as Warner Bros.
The Reeperbahn has been the location for many scenes, including the Beatles film Backbeat. Hamburg was also shown in An American Tail where Fievel Mousekewitz and his family immigrate to America in the hopes to escape cats.
Hamburg has 54 hospitals. The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf , with about 1, beds, houses a large medical school. There are also smaller private hospitals.
On 1 January there were about 12, hospital beds. Hamburg is a major transportation hub, connected to four Autobahnen motorways and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia.
Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the old Elbe Tunnel Alter Elbtunnel or St. Pauli Elbtunnel official name which opened in , now is major tourist sight, and the Elbe Tunnel Elbtunnel the crossing of a motorway.
Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation. Hanseatic City of Hamburg between and and from onwards, rather than the single letter normally used for large cities since the federal registration reform in , such as B for Berlin or M for Munich.
The HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide. Older residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn elevated railway , also because the operating company of the subway is the Hamburger Hochbahn.
Except at the four bigger stations of the city, Hauptbahnhof , Dammtor , Altona and Harburg regional trains do not stop inside the city.
The tram system was opened in and shut down in Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than bus routes, operated by single-deck two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses.
The buses run frequently during working hours, with buses on some so-called MetroBus routes as often as every 2 minutes.
MetroBuses run all around the clock, every day at the year at least every half-hour. While mainly used by citizens and dock workers, they can also be used for sightseeing tours.
EDDH is the fifth biggest and oldest airport in Germany, having been established in and located about 5 miles 8 kilometres from the city centre.
About 60 airlines provide service to destination airports, including some long distance destinations like Newark, New Jersey on United Airlines , Dubai on Emirates , and Tehran on Iran Air ; Lufthansa is the hub carrier, with the most flights and operates one of its biggest maintenance facilities at the Hamburg airport Lufthansa Technik.
It is the second biggest Airbus plant, after Toulouse , and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after Seattle and Toulouse; the plant houses the final assembly lines for A, A, A, A and A aircraft.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Hamburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 58 min.
The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8. Hamburger SV is a football team playing in the 2.
Bundesliga as of The HSV was the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in until a change of results saw them relegated from the Bundesliga in HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup winner and triumphed in the European Cup in , and has played in the group stages of the Champions League twice: They play at the Volksparkstadion average attendance in the 12—13 season was 52, In addition, FC St.
Pauli was a second division football club that came in second place in the —10 season and qualified to play alongside Hamburger SV in the first division for the first time since the —02 season.
The Club won the league in the —11 season and had an average attendance of Since , the club has suffered from economic problems and was almost not allowed the playing licence for the —15 season.
On 20 January however, their licence was removed due to violations following the continued economic struggles. In —17, they were not allowed to play in the first or second league.
The team lives on through their former second team now their main team in the third division and in second division since The Towers play their home games at the Inselparkhalle in Wilhelmsburg.
The team participates in the Deutsch Lacrosse Verein. There are also the Hamburg Dockers , an Australian rules football club. In 23, participants were registered.
Volksparkstadion was used as a site for the World Cup. Hamburg made a bid for the Olympic Games , but Opponents of the bid had argued that hosting the 33rd Olympic Games would cost the city too much in public funds.
The system had approximately , students in primary schools and secondary schools in Nineteen universities are located in Hamburg, with about , university students in total, including 9, resident students.
The city has also smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as the Helmut Schmidt University formerly the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg.
Hamburg has nine twin towns and sister cities around the world. Dar es Salaam , Tanzania became its newest sister city in A hurried and superficial search turns up only crayfish, people from Pinneberg, and those from Bergedorf.
One accompanies the contented little kippers of a striving society; mackerels from Stade, sole from Finkenwerder, herrings from Cuxhaven swim in expectant throngs through the streets of my city and lobsters patrol the stock exchange with open claws The first so-called unguarded glance always lands on the bottom of the sea and falls into twilight of the aquarium.
Heinrich Heine must have had the same experience when he tried, with his cultivated scorn and gifted melancholy, to find the people of Hamburg. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the German city. For other uses, see Hamburg disambiguation. City and state in Germany. View of the Binnenalster , St.
History of Hamburg and Timeline of Hamburg. Government of Hamburg and List of mayors of Hamburg. Boroughs and quarters of Hamburg.
List of parks and gardens in Hamburg. List of theatres in Hamburg. List of museums in Hamburg. Planten un Blomen park. Hills and mansions in Blankenese.
View over Hamburg and the Alster. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Economy of Hamburg.
Education in Hamburg and Education in Germany. Hamburg portal Germany portal. Portal of the Land Statistics Office Hamburg. Retrieved 15 November Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed.
Subscription or UK public library membership required. Retrieved 21 July Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 30 September Retrieved 14 September Vierhundert Jahre Juden in Hamburg: November bis So sind wir Kroaten".
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Archived from the original on 13 June Archived from the original on 1 December Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 19 June Was soll der Krawall auf der Schanze noch?
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Retrieved 1 November The official website of the Port of Hamburg. Ramesh 25 December Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 20 January Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 1 October Hamburg nearly a home port for Queen Mary 2.
Hamburger Abendblatt from 15 January , p. Light Rail Transit Association. Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.
East Riding of Yorkshire. Ceremonial counties of England. List of places in England. List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society.
English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom. English language in England. English language , History of the English language , and Cornish language.
Official, but not majority language. History of Christianity in England. List of universities in England. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England.
Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages. Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish.
This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom.
Cinema of the United Kingdom. List of museums in England. National symbols of England. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.
Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.
Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 9 February International Organization for Standardization.
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Oliver, Boyd and Tweeddale. There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion and Ierne; On Coming-to-be and Passing Away.
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Archived from the original on 12 August City of London Corporation. Archived from the original PDF on 7 October Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 27 April Archived from the original on 13 July Archived from the original on 8 July Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 11 June Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 8 October Archived from the original on 12 September Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 8 December Archived from the original on 15 April The Stockton and Darlington Railway.
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Archived from the original on 13 August Archived from the original on 21 July Jews and England" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 21 July Archived from the original on 7 July Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 16 September QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited.
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Young, Robert JC The Idea of English Ethnicity.Rooney ; Wilson Andere wichtige Ursachen für das Bevölkerungswachstum sind: In England wurde die lotto system spielen mit erfolg Eisenbahn überhaupt gebaut. Jahrhunderts lebte in Deutschland nur ein Viertel der Bevölkerung in Städten. Zum Begriff des Kapitalismus: Im Fall Argentiniens dürfte dies vor allem an mma freiburg Entfernung liegen. Der Absolutismus in Frankreich zentralisierte die Verwaltung des Staates, förderte den Handel, die Stadtentwicklung, später das Gewerbe und die Manufaktur.
First, and most important, is the sight of Paul Gascoigne crying into his England shirt after being booked in the World Cup semi-final against West Germany.
Unaggressive and emotional, a billboard image that helped to start an apparently unstoppable surge in popularity for the national team.
Mark Perryman wrote in To my mind it is the fact that we so nearly did, then lost in the penalty shoot-out that explains the past 16 years of an increasingly bitter rivalry.
Germany was reunited in October For the DFB team, few things changed apart from players previously capped for East Germany becoming eligible for the united German team.
This made little difference to the tone and emotion of the rivalry. Five years later, at the European Championships , England played a unified German team for the first time in a competitive fixture, when they met in the semi-finals.
Like the World Cup, the tournament was being held in England, and the semi-final was played at Wembley Stadium.
So vivid were the memories of for England fans that a media clamour ensued for England to wear red jerseys, instead of the unfamiliar-looking grey away kit that had been launched earlier that year as England had not submitted details of any red kit to UEFA before the tournament, this was never going to be permitted, and England did wear grey.
The build-up to the game was soured, however, by headlines in English tabloid newspapers which were regarded by many as overly nationalistic, and even racist in tone, as they had also been before the previous match against Spain.
For You Fritz, ze Euro 96 Championship is over", accompanied by a mock article aping a report of the declaration of war between the two nations in England took the lead in only the third minute, through tournament top scorer Alan Shearer , but in the 16th minute Stefan Kuntz equalised, and despite many close shots and a disallowed goal from the Germans, the score remained level at 1—1 until the end of extra time.
As in , Germany went on to win the tournament. England and Germany were drawn to meet each other in the first round group stage of the European Championship , held jointly by Belgium and the Netherlands, with the England—Germany game taking place in Charleroi in Belgium.
Before the game, played on 17 June , there were violent incidents involving England fans in the town centre, although these were mostly brief and there were no violent confrontations with German fans.
Nonetheless, reporting of the violence did to a degree overshadow the match result in some media coverage. The match itself was a scrappy affair that lacked the drama of many of the previous encounters, with England sneaking a 1—0 win thanks to a second-half header by striker Alan Shearer.
There was enthusiastic celebration of this result in England, particularly as this was the first time that England had won a competitive match against Germany since the World Cup final.
The German reaction was more pessimistic. Rounding up the German media coverage, The Guardian reported: Is it all over?
In the event, both England and Germany lost their final group matches and both were knocked out in the first round, finishing third and fourth respectively in their group, which was the worst German result in a tournament since the World Cup , while England had already experienced that multiple times in the two previous decades.
England lost 1—0 to a German free kick scored by Dietmar Hamann. Half-time neared, England were a goal down and a sizeable section of the crowd sullied the ever-dampening occasion.
Expectations on the English side were low, but they surprisingly won the game 5—1 with a hat-trick from striker Michael Owen , and eventually qualified for the World Cup as the winners of their group.
Some Germans were shocked by the scale of the defeat, with former striker Karl-Heinz Rummenigge stating that "I have never seen such a terrible defeat This is a new Waterloo for us.
England only reached the quarter-finals. Both teams were defeated by the competition winners, Brazil. England and Germany next played on 22 August , in a friendly at the newly-rebuilt Wembley Stadium.
England surprisingly lost the match 2—1, their first defeat at the new Wembley, as Germany, following the unexpectedly successful World Cup, was still rebuilding the national team with a new generation and many unexperienced players.
Germany won the match 4—1, knocking England out and advancing into the quarter-finals. This was the greatest defeat England ever suffered in their World Cup history.
In the 38th minute, a shot by Frank Lampard controversially bounced off the crossbar well into the goal and back out again with Germany leading only 2—1.
However, neither the referee Jorge Larrionda nor the linesman saw it pass over the line. In Germany it was perceived as "payback" for the goal of As of the November friendly which ended in a goalless draw, England have yet to beat Germany in a FIFA-sanctioned match at Wembley Stadium, a record which dates back to By contrast, Arsenal are the only English side to have won the competition, doing so in Germany matches are televised on national television and attract millions of viewers.
Since World War II , Britain has considered itself a rival to Germany in many areas, such as automobile production , naval forces , trade and economy  —this rivalry has also permeated into football.
English football fans often deem Germany to be their traditional football rival and care more about this rivalry than those with other countries, such as Scotland or Argentina.
In the run-up to any football match against Germany, many English tabloids publish articles that contain references to the Second World War, such as calling their opposition derogatory terms such as " krauts " or " hun ".
As far back as the s, the footballing rivalry between England and Germany has been considered mainly an English phenomenon; this has been observed by several commentators of both English and German origin.
Instead, German fans consider their rivalry with the Netherlands to be their traditional footballing rivalry and care more about the matches against them, such as the FIFA World Cup final.
Some sang directly after the loss to England: In , during the lead-up to World Cup match, journalist Marina Hyde remarked in The Guardian that the rivalry between the England and Germany football teams was "quite obviously an illusion, existing only in the minds of those wishful to the point of insanity — which is to say, the English".
However, it would of course also be false to say that there is no rivalry at all between Germany and England; for one thing, the very fact that the English perceive it to be such cannot go unnoticed, for another, there is the long-standing quarrel about the " Wembley goal " only somewhat silenced since a clear goal was not awarded to the English in England match is on TV".
Also, different flags were applied:. England played four Friendly matches against the East Germany national football team which was fielded by the DFV in the German Democratic Republic which existed from to As well as the rivalry between the national sides, English and German club teams have also met on numerous occasions in the various European club competitions.
The game  ended as a 1—1 draw after added extra time aet before being decided 4—3 on penalties. Bayern Munich seemed like the more dominant of the two sides throughout, but a criticised   Chelsea defence "parked the bus" , preventing many chances which eventually lead to their first Champions League win.
Perhaps the most noteworthy encounter was the UEFA Champions League Final between Manchester United and Bayern Munich, during which the English club were trailing 1—0 until injury time, then scoring two goals to win 2—1.
This result was celebrated by many in England who were not United fans as being another English victory over Germany. Leeds would eventually eliminate a German team VfB Stuttgart in unexpected and bizarre circumstances.
After the Germans had qualified, in the first round of the —93 competition, on the away goals rule, the return leg was awarded by UEFA 3—0 to Leeds United because Stuttgart fielded an extra foreigner, thus infringing the European competition rules that were in place at the time.
A replay was ordered as the aggregate stood at 3—3. It started a sequence of six consecutive English European Cup victories each time involving the elimination of a German club in the latter stages.
Both English sides exacted revenge over Leverkusen in subsequent Champions League encounters. Borussia Dortmund beat Manchester United 1—0 both home and away in the semifinal of the —97 UEFA Champions League which they won, United having been guilty of squandering numerous chances in both legs, especially the return leg at Old Trafford.
English club victories were often celebrated in a manner which evoked memories of the War. The outspoken Brian Clough is on record boasting that he never lost to a German side and that he took satisfaction from this for what the Germans had done to his father during the war.
Clough memorably led Nottingham Forest to a 1—0 win in Cologne following a spectacular 3—3 draw at the City Ground in the semifinal en route to Forest winning their first European Cup.
The following year, a Forest side minus star player, Trevor Francis , defeated Hamburg in the final by employing an Italian style catenaccio based on dogged defence and brilliant goalkeeping by Peter Shilton.
Liverpool have a tremendous record against German opposition, from both sides of the East-West divide, and once famously hit Munich 8—0 in an old Fairs Cup game, a treatment meted out to Hamburg 6—0 when winning the first of their three European Super Cups, the second also against German opposition in the form of FC Bayern Munich.
Bayern had hit Coventry City for six in a previous round. Liverpool won the first leg 3—0 with an Alun Evans hat-trick and drew 1—1 in Munich.
The most important encounter between the two sides was in the European Cup semi-final of when a depleted Liverpool were held to a goalless draw at Anfield and then drew 1—1 in Munich.
Borussia would eliminate an English club in en route to winning the UEFA Cup for the second time in their history. The English club was Manchester City whose manager, Malcolm Allison , had taken over a few months earlier from Tony Book and dismantled what seemed, in the earlier rounds, to be a star-studded side, to blood young wannabes.
There were memorable encounters in the other European competitions. The English hold the upper hand even in these competitions.
There were however some narrow escapes. The Reds hung on in the second half. In , Queens Park Rangers , also making their debut, with Stan Bowles , Dave Thomas and Don Givens in their ranks, took a 3—0 lead to the Mungersdorfer Stadion in Cologne and increased their lead there only for the Germans to storm back with four goals and miss out on qualification on the away goals rule.
There were also many encounters between English league sides and clubs from the DDR which mostly ended in favour of the English sides, although these confrontations were less spectacular than those involving clubs from West Germany.
Jena made it to the final where they lost to Dynamo Tbilisi of Georgia , then part of the Soviet Union. Liverpool had three confrontations with Dynamo Dresden which they all won, including a splendid 5—1 performance at Anfield in the second round of the European Cup competition.
They managed to register another victory 1—0 on English soil in the return leg only to be ousted on the away goal rule by Villa who went on to keep the European Cup in England for a sixth consecutive year, beating FC Bayern Munich in the Rotterdam final.
Forest cast-away, Peter Withe , scored the only goal of the game against the run of play. For most of the second half, Bayern were camped inside the Villa half, hit the woodwork, went tantaisingly close on a number of occasions but found substitute rookie goalkeeper, Nigel Spink who replaced veteran Jimmy Rimmer after only a few minutes , in inspiring form.
Owen Hargreaves played for Bayern Munich for seven seasons before transferring to Manchester United in Keegan was twice European Footballer of the Year and a European Cup finalist during his time at Hamburg, where the German public nicknamed him "Mighty Mouse", after a cartoon hero, because of his prolific scoring, his height or lack thereof , his high level of mobility, and his ability to turn sharply and often while running at high speed.
Woodcock was also a popular figure at Cologne. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from England and Germany football rivalry.
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Friendly match between England and Germany at Wembley Stadium. England and Germany have played 30 official matches against each other since Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 30 May Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Computer Vision.
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Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 27 October Retrieved 4 July The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus , Germania , in which the Latin word Anglii is used.
An alternative name for England is Albion. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus , specifically the 4th-century BC De Mundo: In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne ".
Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor , dating to approximately , years ago.
By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze , and later iron from iron ores.
The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs , advancing agriculture for instance, with Celtic fields , as well as the production of more effective weapons.
Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans.
The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius , subsequently conquering much of Britain , and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.
There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier.
According to Bede , missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church.
There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea , while others claim through Lucius of Britain. This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology.
Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.
Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles , Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province and began to settle, initially in the eastern part of the country.
Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement.
Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from onwards.
During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria , Mercia , Wessex , East Anglia , Essex , Kent and Sussex.
Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.
Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.
A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut in , turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.
However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in , accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy.
Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage.
The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century  and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.
During the Tudor period , the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity.
Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.
In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.
Competing with Spain , the first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship.
During the Elizabethan period , England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy.
The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.
This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.
Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.
This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth.
Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed.
After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.
This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.
In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards  with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.
After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed,  the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.
Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.
During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.
The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh.
London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.
Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century.
Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.
Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system.
Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.
In the United Kingdom general election, , the Conservative Party won seats the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative , more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority.
As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament.
Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.
One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.
The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law  legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries  and the United States except Louisiana.
Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.
The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.
It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.
The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.
After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.
London accepted in However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.
Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.
Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.
They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.
Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.
Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.
It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: England is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain.
The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.
The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.
They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.
The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.
England has a temperate maritime climate: The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.
Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.
The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England  and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.
While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.
England is a leader in the chemical  and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.
Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution. England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.
The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.
Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.
With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.
The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.
Inventions and discoveries of the English include: Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.
The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle  much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.
The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.
These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.
The National Health Service NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.
It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people.
In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the s: England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.
During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.
There is no legislation mandating an official language for England,  but English is the only language used for official business.
As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived,   and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.
Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century,  and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.
State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.
In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.
Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.
A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.
There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.
A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.
According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.
The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.
Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.
Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.
Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.
A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university. Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.
Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree.
The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.
Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.
Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.
Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism ,   to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.
After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.
Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.
Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.
In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.
Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.
With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.
Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.
English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.
Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith ,  others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.
Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.
The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.
Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.
Sweet pastries include scones either plain or containing dried fruit served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.
Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza ,  and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.
The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.
There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.
Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth ,  while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.
Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G. Cole are somewhat related.
Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.
It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject  and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.
In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers.
A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.
Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.
English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Its collection of more than seven million objects  is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,  sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.
Sports originating in England include association football ,  cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash ,  rounders ,  hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.
It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.
The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7. However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final.
William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.
Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century.
England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.
Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.
Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.
Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. England has produced grand slam winners: The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.
Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.
Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles  and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.
English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.
Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.
Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.
Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.
A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.
The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. It is also known as the Rose of England.
The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.
England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: St George is the patron saint of England.
Edit Read in another language England. This article is about the country. For other uses, see England disambiguation. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction.
England in the Middle Ages. East Riding of Yorkshire. Ceremonial counties of England. List of places in England.
List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society. English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom.
English language in England. English language , History of the English language , and Cornish language. Official, but not majority language.
History of Christianity in England. List of universities in England. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England. Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages.
Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom. Cinema of the United Kingdom.
List of museums in England. National symbols of England. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.
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